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On quotation and citation

Terms related to quotation, their definitions

Citation is an essential part of a scientific work that reveals the relationship between scientific works, provides information on the contribution of the author’s work and the author’s examination of the topic, facilitates the identification of and search for information sources used, and helps to avoid plagiarism.

Quotation is an exact extract taken from one text and repeated in another text, which is usually written between commas or in a different font.

E.g.:

G. Hornby maintains that “the tendency for greater involvement of parents of younger children may be partly because younger children are more positive about their parents going into school.”

Or

G. Hornby maintains that the tendency for greater involvement of parents of younger children may be partly because younger children are more positive about their parents going into school.

Paraphrase is the reformulation of ideas of another author by replacing words and changing word order but not distorting the original meaning.

E.g.:

According to G. Hornby, parents of younger children participate more in their children’s education, since younger children are keener about their parents being involved in school life (Hornby, 2011).

Reference is a record indicating the source of the text. It can be placed in the text or at the bottom of the page.

E.g.:

The tendency for greater involvement of parents of younger children may be partly because younger children are more positive about their parents going into school. (Hornby, 2011).

Or

The tendency for greater involvement of parents of younger children may be partly because younger children are more positive about their parents going into school.1

_________________________

  1. Hornby G. Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships, New York, 2011, p. 16.

 

 Bibliographic reference is a set of data necessary to identify and describe the source of information or its part.

E.g.:

Hornby, G. Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.

Citation style is the order of the arrangement of elements of a bibliographic reference. Different citation styles are used in different fields of science, for example, American Psychological Association, i.e. APA style, is used in social sciences, whereas Chicago citation style is followed in humanities.

E.g.:

APA citation style:

Hornby, G. (2011). Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Chicago citation style:

Hornby, Garry. Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2011.

 

ISO 690:2010 citation style:

HORNBY, Garry. Parental Involvement in Childhood Education: Building Effective School-Family Partnerships. New York: Springer Science & Business Media, 2011. ISBN 978-1-4419-8378-7.

 

Basic principles of quotation:

  1. It is always necessary to provide information about sources that are quoted or paraphrased within the text by using references or a list of works cited.
  2. It should be quoted only to the extent that is necessary in order to avoid the overshadowing of the author’s thoughts by other authors’ thoughts and the text by other authors’ text.

The Law on the Copyright and Related Rights of the Republic of Lithuania stipulates the following:

Article 21. Quotation

  1. It shall be permitted … to reproduce … a relatively short passage of a literary and scientific work which has been lawfully published or made available to the public, both in the original and translated language, in the form of a quotation … in another work, provided that such use is in accordance with fair practice and to the extent required by the specific purpose.

Although no formal requirements for the length of a quotation have been set, following the general worldwide practice, quotes longer than 4 lines should be used only in exceptional cases and they should be distinguished in the text (by different fonts, italics or frames).

Quotations should be used sparsely and only if it is necessary. The number and volume of quotations should not exceed the needs of the aim of the quotation.

  1. It should be clear to the reader which ideas belong to the author of the work and which material has been taken from other sources.
  2. Quotations should be incorporated in the text purposefully and perform a particular function, e.g. to prove the author’s statement, to acknowledge the intellectual contribution of other authors, to criticize previous works, or to give the reader additional information.
  3. Only a publicly published work or work otherwise communicated to the public may be quoted (non-public lectures, prepared but not published works, unpublished or secret official documents, etc. cannot be quoted).

What citation styles should be used by university students and researchers?

  1. When writing qualification works (e.g. Bachelor’s, Master’s or other theses), students should follow the instructions given by the supervisor, the department or the faculty.
  2. When preparing publications, researchers should find out what system of bibliographic references is used by a particular periodical, the editorial board of the particular periodical, or the publishing house.
  3. In the absence of instructions on the rules of bibliographic references, we recommend using the international standard LST ISO 690:2010. Information and documentation. Guidelines for citation of bibliographic references and information sources.

Final theses at Vytautas Magnus University are prepared according to the following citation styles:

Code Study branch Citation style
Faculty of Economics and Management
L100 Ekonomics American Psychological Association (APA)
N100 Business American Psychological Association (APA)
N200 Management American Psychological Association (APA)
N300 Finances American Psychological Association (APA)
N500 Marketing American Psychological Association (APA)
N900 Businee and management American Psychological Association (APA)
Faculty of Natural Sciences
C100 Biology American Psychological Association (APA)
C700 Molecular biology, biophysics and biochemistry American Psychological Association (APA)
F300 Physics ISO 690:2010: numeric method
F700 Environmental research American Psychological Association (APA)
J700 Biotechnologies ISO 690:2010
J900 Technologies ISO 690:2010: numeric method
Faculty of Humanities
Q100 Linguistics The Harvard System
Q200 Literature studies The Harvard System
Q300 English philology Modern Language Association (MLA)
R100 French philology Modern Language Association (MLA)
R200 German philology Modern Language Association (MLA)
R300 Italian philology Modern Language Association (MLA)
T900 Philology Modern Language Association (MLA)
U100 Lithuanian philology The Harvard System
U700 Regional cultural studijes The Harvard System
U800 Ethnology and folkloristics The Harvard System
V100 History Chicago: notes and bibliography; for archival documents – the citation style of “Kauno istorijos metraštis”
V200 Regional history Chicago: notes and bibliography; for archival documents – the citation style of “Kauno istorijos metraštis”
Faculty of Informatics
G100 Mathematics Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
I100

Informatics

 

Business informatics

Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

American Psychological Association (APA)

E100 Informatics engineering Institute of Electric and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Faculty of Catholic Theology
V600 Theology Chicago: author-date
V800 Religion studies American Psychological Association (APA)
Faculty of Arts
U900 Art criticism ISO 690:2010
V700 Heritage studies ISO 690:2010
W400 Theatre and cinema ISO 690:2010
W600 Photography and media ISO 690:2010
W200 Design ISO 690:2010
W300 Music ISO 690:2010
P900 Communication American Psychological Association (APA)
Music Academy
W300 Music American Psychological Association (APA)
X100 Pedagogy American Psychological Association (APA)
Faculty of Political Science and Diplomacy
L200 Political sciences Chicago: notes and bibliography
N700 Public administration ISO 690:2010
P200 Public relations American Psychological Association (APA)
P500 Journalism American Psychological Association (APA)
P900 Communication American Psychological Association (APA)
V500 Philosophy Modern Language Association (MLA)
Faculty of Social Sciences
L300 Sociology Chicago: author-date
L400 Social policy Chicago: author-date
L500 Social work American Psychological Association (APA)
L600 Anthropology Chicago: author-date
S100 Psychology American Psychological Association (APA)
X100 Pedagogy American Psychological Association (APA)
X200 Education science American Psychological Association (APA)
X300 Andragogy American Psychological Association (APA)
Faculty of Law
M900 Law Chicago: notes and bibliography

 

The sources:

  1. Harvey, G. (1998). Writing with sources: a guide for students. Indianapolis: Hackett.
  2. Lietuvos Respublikos autorių teisių ir gretutinių teisių įstatymas.

 

Libraries

K. Donelaičio St. 52–218, Kaunas
V. Putvinskio St. 23, I floor, Kaunas
S. Daukanto St. 25, I floor, Kaunas
Jonavos St. 66–106, Kaunas
Vileikos St. 8–602/605, Kaunas
V. Čepinskio St. 5–429, Kaunas
Universiteto St. 10–200, Akademija, Kauno r.
T. Ševčenkos St. 31, Vilnius